The coffee espresso is prepared by the process of providing water pressure in ground coffee. The high pressure releases the softest and most aromatic components of the grain and creates a rich creamy foam on the surface.
A good espresso is recognized by the cream. If at this coffee cream we add the foam milk we make a cappuccino.
Espresso is the basis for other drinks such as coffee latte, coffee macchiato, coffee moka etc.
Espresso has become very popular since the 1980s.
The first attempts to create espresso machine has done during the 18º century. In 1822 the first espresso machine is created in France but due to the huge size, this machine never entered into mass production. The first real espresso machine belongs to Italy and to the engineer Luigi Bezzera. Was created in Milan in 1901 and was named Tipo Gigante. It was an impressive machine and influenced for a long time the manufacturers of espresso machines. It was the first that used steam mixed with hot water high pressure. The method was innovative for that period, but the coffee came out too bitter.
But in 1905 Desiderio Pavoni discovered that we have the best effect when the coffee is to 90,5ºC and 9 bar water pressure. Thus was created the espresso with the taste and quality that we know today.
The current form of espresso machines is belonged to Achile Gaggia, who in 1947 presented to the public the Crema Coffee Machine. This machine could produce water pressure over 8 bar and was relatively cheap, this was a reason that this machine became widely known and many coffee shops bought it.
It was the first machine that made cream as we know it today and with the first lever.
The perfection was done in 1948 by espresso machine Classica and the patent that Cremonesi used. He found the way to pass warm water (not hot) through the layer of coffee and the result was a nice taste and cream on the surface.
Since then, several tests and experiments are performed to get the espresso machines in the form they have today!